The following terms will help you understand what your doctor tells you about your stone disorder, and your possible treatment.

Abdomen The part of the body that contains all the structures between the chest and the pelvis.
Acute Urgent, as in a disease that happens suddenly.
Antegrade In reference to the urinary system, urine moving through the ureter from the kidney downward toward the bladder.
Biopsy Removal of a histologic sample of tissue of microscopic evaluation by a pathologist.
Bladder The balloon-shaped pouch of thin, flexible muscle in which urine is temporarily collected before being discharged through the urethra.
Catheter A thin tube that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder to allow urine to drain for performance of a procedure or test.
ESWL Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy technique for breaking up kidney stones by directing shock waves generated outside the body, at stones directed by fluoroscopy.
Invasive Involving cutting or puncturing the skin.
Retention Maintaining or keeping position of a stent.
Retrograde In reference to the urinary system, urine or fluid moving from the bladder up into the ureters or kidney.
Steinstrausse Stone fragments which collect in the ureter after ESWL, causing blocking or decreased urine flow.
Stenosis/Stricture Narrowing of a tube like organ
Stent With regard to treating ureteral stones, a tube inserted through the urethra and bladder and into the ureter. Stents are used to aid treatment in various ways, such as preventing stone fragments from blocking the flow of urine.
Stone Small hard mass of mineral material formed in an organ
SWL Shock wave lithotripsy, which are high energy shock waves aimed at kidney or ureteral stones used in conjunction with ultrasound or x-rays to break up the stones into small enough pieces to pass out of the body easily with normal urination
Ureteral orifice Opening of the ureter into bladder
Ureterolithotomy Removal of a stone by incision into the ureter.
Ureters Tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Urethra The tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body; in males, it’s also the channel through which semen is ejaculated.
Uric acid stone A kidney stone that may result from animal protein in the diet. When the body breaks down this protein, uric acid levels rise and can form stones.
Urinary tract The system that takes wastes from the blood and carries them out of the body, comprised of the kidneys ureters, bladder and urethra.
Urinate To pass urine from the bladder to the outside.
Urine Liquid waste product filtered from the blood by the kidneys, stored in the bladder and expelled from the body from the urethra by the act of urinating.
Urologist A doctor specializing in diseases of the male and female urinary system and male reproductive system.

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